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Difference between revisions of "Licenses"

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== Comparison of Licenses ==
+
Sheila: Times have changed
 +
Our kids are getting worse
 +
They won't obey their parents
 +
They just want to fart and curse!
 +
Sharon: Should we blame the government?
 +
Liane: Or blame society?
 +
Dads: Or should we blame the images on TV?
 +
Sheila: No, blame Canada
 +
Everyone: Blame Canada
 +
Sheila: With all their beady little eyes
 +
And flapping heads so full of lies
 +
Everyone: Blame Canada
 +
Blame Canada
 +
Sheila: We need to form a full assault
 +
Everyone: It's Canada's fault!
 +
Sharon: Don't blame me
 +
For my son Stan
 +
He saw the damn cartoon
 +
And now he's off to join the Klan!
 +
Liane: And my boy Eric once
 +
Had my picture on his shelf
 +
But now when I see him he tells me to fuck myself!
 +
Sheila: Well, blame Canada
 +
Everyone: Blame Canada
 +
Sheila: It seems that everything's gone wrong
 +
Since Canada came along
 +
Everyone: Blame Canada
 +
Blame Canada
 +
Copy Guy: They're not even a real country anyway
 +
Ms. McCormick: My son could've been a doctor or a lawyer rich and true,
 +
Instead he burned up like a piggy on the barbecue
 +
Everyone: Should we blame the matches?
 +
Should we blame the fire?
 +
Or the doctors who allowed him to expire?
 +
Sheila: heck no!
 +
Everyone: Blame Canada
 +
Blame Canada
 +
Sheila: With all their hockey hullabaloo
 +
Liane: And that bitch Anne Murray too
 +
Everyone: Blame Canada
 +
Shame on Canada
 +
For...
 +
The smut we must stop
 +
The trash we must bash
 +
The Laughter and fun
 +
Must all be undone
 +
We must blame them and cause a fuss
 +
Before somebody thinks of blaming uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuus!!!!
  
 
+
SABAZZ!
{| width="100%" border="1" style="text-align:center;border-collapse:collapse;"
 
! License
 
! [[#Intended scope|Intended scope]]
 
! [[#Copyleft|Copyleft]]
 
! [[#Practical modifiability|Practical modifiability]]
 
! [[#Attribution|Attribution]]
 
! [[#Related rights|Related rights]]
 
! [[#Access control prohibition|Access control prohibition]]
 
! [[#Worldwide applicability|Worldwide applicability]]
 
|-
 
| [[#Against DRM|Against DRM]]
 
| Works of art
 
| {{yes|Normal}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{yes|Granted}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| Exact translations
 
|-
 
| [[#Creative Commons Attribution|Creative Commons Attribution]]
 
| Non-software
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| {{yes|Granted}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| National adaptations
 
|-
 
| [[#Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike|Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike]]
 
| Non-software
 
| {{yes|Normal}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| {{yes|Granted}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| National adaptations
 
|-
 
| [[#Design Science License|Design Science License]]
 
| Generic, optimally science data
 
| {{yes|Normal}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| Same license (English version)
 
|-
 
| [[#Do What The Fuck You Want To Public License|Do What The Fuck You Want To Public License]]
 
| Generic
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{yes|Granted}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| Same license (English version)
 
|-
 
| [[#Free Art License|Free Art License]]
 
| Non-software
 
| {{yes|Normal}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| {{yes|Granted}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| Exact translations (French law)
 
|-
 
| [[#FreeBSD Documentation License|FreeBSD Documentation License]]
 
| Documentation
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| Same license (English version)
 
|-
 
| [[#GNU Free Documentation License|GNU Free Documentation License]]
 
| Documentation
 
| {{yes|Normal}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| -
 
| {{yes}}
 
| Same license (English version)
 
|-
 
| [[#GNU Lesser General Public License|GNU Lesser General Public License]]
 
| Generic, optimally Software
 
| {{partial|Weak}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| -
 
| {{no}}
 
| Same license (English version)
 
|-
 
| [[#GNU General Public License|GNU General Public License]]
 
| Generic, optimally Software
 
| {{yes|Strong}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| -
 
| {{partial|Version 3 prohibits "Tivoisation" in certain cases}}
 
| Same license (English version)
 
|-
 
| [[#Lizenz für Freie Inhalte|Lizenz für Freie Inhalte]]
 
| Generic
 
| {{yes|Normal}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{yes}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| Unknown (license text is German)
 
|-
 
| [[#MIT License|MIT License]]
 
| Software
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| {{no}}
 
| Same license (English version)
 
|}
 
 
 
== Criteria for choosing a license ==
 
 
 
We explain hereafter some of the criteria which may influence your choice of a free content license. Those criteria are not inherently good or bad. The importance of each criteria depends on the context (for example the kind of work, or the kind of collaborative process you want to encourage), and on personal preferences.
 
 
 
This list is not meant to be exhaustive. Other aspects may be important, like the clarity of the wording of a license, or the philosophy which is defended by its authors, or whether the license is surrounded by an active community of authors.
 
 
 
Endly, we want to stress that, '''before choosing a license, you must read the license text carefully.''' No summary, no matter how attractive or reassuring, can replace detailed understanding of the license itself.
 
 
 
=== Intended scope ===
 
 
 
Some licenses strive to be as generic as is humanly (or rather, legally) possible. Others deliberately focus on a specific domain of creation, like software, or documentation. When a license has such a focus, it doesn't mean that it cannot be used for other kinds of works, but that its main area of use (and thus its social recognition as a trustable license) is clearly bounded.
 
 
 
For example, the GNU GPL can be used for many kinds of works, but its main area of recognition is software.
 
 
 
=== Copyleft ===
 
 
 
When a work is "copylefted", it means all derived works (even if they mix in other works as well) must be distributed under the same terms (usually the same exact license) as the original work. Conversely, a non-copylefted work can be distributed under different terms, and even be rendered non-free.
 
 
 
Therefore, using a copyleft license pretty much guarantees that users of subsequent works (for example modified copies) will be granted the same essential freedoms. On the other hand, a copyleft license can also limit opportunities for re-use, because most copyleft licenses are not compatible between each other. This is why people sometimes prefer non-copyleft license, depending on the work and the kind of practices they want to encourage.
 
 
 
''ShareAlike'' is a synonym of ''copyleft'' in the Creative Commons vocabulary.
 
 
 
Strong copyleft also forbids linking or integration the subject work into larger works/projects that are not also licensed with a license with compatible copyleft terms.  Weak copyleft lacks such a 'viral copyleft' requirement.
 
 
 
=== Practical modifiability ===
 
 
 
Although all free licenses give you the ''legal'' right to modify, not all of them try to specify how modifiability of the work is ''practically'' enforced. [[Source Code|Requiring modifiability]] is important, especially for works which can be distributed under a completely opaque format such as software binary code (''"object code"'').
 
 
 
The licenses which require practical modifiability usually define a notion of ''source code'', ''source data'' or similar. The GNU FDL defines ''transparent copies'' and disallows use of technological protection measures. The Creative Commons licenses disallow use of TPMs.
 
 
 
=== Attribution ===
 
 
 
Requiring attribution means that authorship for the work must be recognized in any circumstances. In the context of derived works (modified copies), this includes the initial as well as subsequent authors and contributors.
 
 
 
It is often stated that all licenses can implicitly require attribution, as they mandate that the copyright notice must be kept intact when distributing copies. By including up-to-date authorship information in the copyright notice, one can indeed forbid subsequent works to erase that information. However, future contributions to the work are not guaranteed to be also credited using such a mechanism; indeed, it is based on the good will of authors (or maintainers) of subsequent works. Having an Attribution requirement prevents this from happening and mandates that all subsequent works have the same policy in mentioning authorship.
 
 
 
Attribution is a double-edged sword, as it may become a heavy burden to list all contributors for projects which imply seamless and massive collaboration (like Wikipedia). For many works it is a however a reasonable requirement.
 
 
 
:I wonder what the long term problems are going to be a thousand years from now should the world and our culture remain intact. Will these requirements seem reasonable for any popular works?
 
 
 
::I doubt Senators would be able to extend copyright beyond a few hundred years.  But even then, it will probably be very absurd for massive collaboration projects even for the first dozen years.
 
 
 
=== Related rights ===
 
 
 
''Related rights'' concern not the mere copying and modification of the work, but its use in a derived manner: for example, performing the work, displaying it in public or private, broadcasting, webcasting, etc. Related rights exist for various areas of creation (songs, theater...); they often belong to people other than the authors of the work, such as perfomers, producers of phonograms, etc.
 
 
 
Some free content licenses take care to also grant related rights to the recipient of the work. There may even be a [[#Copyleft|copyleft]] provision which states that related works (interpretations, performances, recordings) must be released under the same license as the work.
 
 
 
=== Access control prohibition ===
 
 
 
Some licenses contain a clause, which forbids to control access to the licensed content.
 
In some licenses this clause concerns only the licensee (licensor can use access control systems to forbid not granted rights).
 
 
 
=== Worldwide applicability ===
 
 
 
When distributing a free work over the world, it is important to understand how people from other countries will be able to reuse this work.
 
 
 
License writers have adopted three different strategies regarding the internationalization of their licenses:
 
* ''same license for everyone'': only the original license text (often in English) is given legal value, and translations may be provided purely for information purposes;
 
* ''exact translations'': translations of the original license text are provided, which all have legal value; those translations have exactly the same clauses and wording as the original text;
 
* ''local adaptations'': the license is rewritten according to each national legal system.
 
 
 
'''Attention: some licenses use a specific national law: so you cannot interpret the license through your national law, but through the law specified in the license.'''
 
For example, Free Art License uses French law (you must pay attention to French law also if the license is written in English, German or other languages).
 
 
 
The two first schemes ensure that everyone is given the same rights. In the third scheme (local adaptations), similarity and equivalence of the different versions should be carefully examined.
 
 
 
According to advocates of the adaptation scheme, licenses must be rewritten in order to cope with the peculiarities of the various legal systems. This position is held by the Creative Commons organization.
 
 
 
According to opponents of the adaptation scheme, having different national versions of a license presents the risk to break trust and interoperability. Also, they stress that the [http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works] provides a framework which, with careful drafting, allows to write internationally applicable license texts. This position is held by the Free Software Foundation and by the Free Art License authors.
 
 
 
== List of licenses ==
 
 
 
=== Against DRM ===
 
 
 
* current version: 2.0
 
* author: [http://www.freecreations.org Free Creations]
 
* reference URL (English): http://www.freecreations.org/Against_DRM2.html
 
* reference URL (Italian): http://www.freecreations.org/Against_DRM2_it.html
 
* reference URL (Spanish - Castilian): http://www.freecreations.org/Against_DRM2_es1.html
 
* reference URL (Spanish - Catalan): http://www.freecreations.org/Against_DRM2_es2.html
 
* reference URL (French): http://www.freecreations.org/Against_DRM2_fr.html
 
 
 
=== BSD-like non-copyleft licenses ===
 
 
 
In parallel with the set of GNU licenses (including the [[#GNU GPL|GNU GPL]]), the [[Existing Movements#Free Software|free software]] world evolved a number of very simple non-copyleft licenses. These licenses are so simple that no dedicated text is needed to expose the terms of the license. To reuse such a license, you must take its text and replace the copyright notice with your own. Since these licenses are non-copyleft, changing the license text in such a way does not prevent reuse between works from happening.
 
 
 
Regardless of their wording, these licenses always grant the user very broad rights, including the right to modify and distribute without supplying any source code. Also, their concise wording makes them simple to understand and unambiguous as to their effects.
 
 
 
These licenses are often called "BSD-like" because the first occurence of such a license has been the license under which the Berkeley Software Distribution (one of the first free versions of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix Unix]) was shipped to users.
 
 
 
One should distinguish the original BSD license with its controversial ''[http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/bsd.html advertising clause]'' from the revised BSD license that does not have the advertising clause.
 
 
 
=== FreeBSD Documentation License ===
 
 
 
* author: [http://www.freebsd.org/ FreeBSD Project]
 
* reference URL: [http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-doc-license.html http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-doc-license.html]
 
 
 
Although especially written for the FreeBSD project, this license shows you how to draft a very simple non-copyleft license for documentation works.
 
 
 
=== MIT License ===
 
 
 
* author: MIT
 
* reference URL: [http://www.opensource.org/osi3.0/licenses/mit-license.php http://www.opensource.org/osi3.0/licenses/mit-license.php]
 
 
 
This license is arguably the simplest form of the BSD-like licenses for software. All the license, except for the no-warranty statement, is condensed in two short paragraphs.
 
 
 
There are variants, like the [http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php current BSD license] which has an additional provision forbidding endorsement of derived works using the name of the original authors.
 
 
 
=== Creative Commons Attribution ===
 
 
 
* Aliases: CC-BY
 
* Current version: 3.0
 
 
 
=== Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike ===
 
 
 
* Aliases: CC-BY-SA
 
* Current version: 3.0
 
 
 
=== Design Science License ===
 
 
 
* ''Not maintained anymore''<ref></ref>
 
* [http://www.gnu.org/licenses/dsl.html License text (English)]
 
 
 
=== Free Art License ===
 
 
 
* Aliases: License Arte Libre, FAL, LAL
 
* Current version: 1.3
 
* author: [http://artlibre.org/ Copyleft Attitude]
 
* [http://artlibre.org/licence/lal/en/ License text (English, version 1.2)]
 
* [http://artlibre.org/licence/lal/ License text (French)]
 
 
 
=== GNU Free Document License ===
 
 
 
* Aliases: GNU FDL, GFDL, FDL
 
* Current version: 1.2
 
* [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html License text (English)]
 
 
 
==== Invariant sections ====
 
 
 
''Invariant sections'' are a special provision of the GFDL which, if used, prevent anyone from modifying the parts of the work which are defined as "invariant". The Free Software Foundation finds it useful to protect some special "non-functional" parts of the work, like a statement of intent (the motivation for invariant sections was, allegedly, to prevent the GNU Manifesto to be removed or modified in GNU documentations).
 
 
 
We believe, however, that freedom should apply to all kind of works, and that what is "functional" in one situation can be "artistic" in another - and vice-versa. Consequently, a work using invariant sections to forbid some kinds of modifications to the work cannot be considered completely free.
 
 
 
=== GNU General Public License ===
 
 
 
* Aliases: GNU GPL, GPL
 
* Current version: 3.0
 
* Author: [http://www.fsf.org/ Free Software Foundation]
 
* [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html License text (English)]
 
 
 
The GNU GPL is, according to various statistics, probably the most used free software license. It was also the first license to implement the concept of [[#Copyleft|copyleft]], guaranteeing that "GPL'ed" free software cannot become, or take part in, non-free software.
 
 
 
Although the GPL is primarily intended for software programs, it is worded so as to apply to many different kinds of works. The main condition for the GPL to be applicable to a type of work is that it admits the notion of a ''preferred form of a work for making modifications to it'' (be it source code in a computer language, music score notation, digital graphics under a format retaining structure, etc.). For example, there are many occurences of text or graphics released under the GPL.
 
 
 
=== Lizenz für Freie Inhalte ===
 
 
 
* Aliases: LFFI
 
* [http://www.neppstar.net/webstar/freieinhalte-webstar.html License Text (German)]
 
 
 
AFAIK only used by the german portal neppstar for free music and video. Anyway, it seems to be a valid free license.
 
 
 
=== Do What The Fuck You Want To Public License ===
 
 
 
* Aliases: WTFPL
 
* Current version: 2 (December 2004)
 
* [http://sam.zoy.org/wtfpl/COPYING License Text (English)]
 
 
 
This is a minimalistic, all-permissive, all-purpose license.
 
 
 
=== Commentary on non-free licenses ===
 
 
 
* [[Licenses/NC|Essay about the Creative Commons non-commercial restriction]]
 

Revision as of 02:36, 13 February 2008

Sheila: Times have changed Our kids are getting worse They won't obey their parents They just want to fart and curse! Sharon: Should we blame the government? Liane: Or blame society? Dads: Or should we blame the images on TV? Sheila: No, blame Canada Everyone: Blame Canada Sheila: With all their beady little eyes And flapping heads so full of lies Everyone: Blame Canada Blame Canada Sheila: We need to form a full assault Everyone: It's Canada's fault! Sharon: Don't blame me For my son Stan He saw the damn cartoon And now he's off to join the Klan! Liane: And my boy Eric once Had my picture on his shelf But now when I see him he tells me to fuck myself! Sheila: Well, blame Canada Everyone: Blame Canada Sheila: It seems that everything's gone wrong Since Canada came along Everyone: Blame Canada Blame Canada Copy Guy: They're not even a real country anyway Ms. McCormick: My son could've been a doctor or a lawyer rich and true, Instead he burned up like a piggy on the barbecue Everyone: Should we blame the matches? Should we blame the fire? Or the doctors who allowed him to expire? Sheila: heck no! Everyone: Blame Canada Blame Canada Sheila: With all their hockey hullabaloo Liane: And that bitch Anne Murray too Everyone: Blame Canada Shame on Canada For... The smut we must stop The trash we must bash The Laughter and fun Must all be undone We must blame them and cause a fuss Before somebody thinks of blaming uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuus!!!!

SABAZZ!